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Monday, March 28, 2005

Perlu Regulasi Pembayaran Jasa Lingkungan

KOMPAS, Rabu, 16 Februari 2005
Jakarta, Kompas - Indonesia membutuhkan regulasi tentang pembayaran jasa lingkungan atau yang dikenal sebagai Payments for Environmental Services alias PES. Regulasi yang dimaksud harus memperkuat mekanisme normatif yang sudah berkembang di masyarakat.

Demikian antara lain rekomendasi yang dihasilkan dalam lokakarya Pembayaran dan Imbal Jasa Lingkungan, yang berlangsung dua hari, Senin-Selasa (14-15/2) di Jakarta.
Lokakarya-yang diikuti sekitar 60 peserta dari berbagai lembaga pemerintah dan masyarakat serta sektor swasta- itu diselenggarakan oleh Rewarding Upland Poor for Environmental Services, bersama Lembaga Penelitian, Pendidikan, dan Penerangan Ekonomi dan Sosial (LP3ES), World Wildlife Fund (WWF) Indonesia, Badan Perencanaan Pembangunan Nasional, dan Ford Foundation.

Sejauh ini regulasi tentang pembayaran jasa lingkungan baru pada tingkat peraturan daerah (perda). Sebagai contoh, pembayaran jasa lingkungan daerah aliran sungai (DAS) Cidanau di Provinsi Banten mengacu kepada perda provinsi. Hal yang sama diterapkan melalui perda kabupaten di Lampung Barat.

Dalam diskusi, berkembang pemikiran untuk tidak perlu membuat regulasi baru. Ketentuan tentang pembayaran jasa lingkungan cukup dimasukkan ke regulasi yang sudah ada. Misalnya, undang-undang atau peraturan pemerintah yang mengatur tentang subsidi atau pajak.

Para peserta sepakat bahwa regulasi itu nantinya dibuat dengan melibatkan seluruh pemangku peran (stakeholders), dengan berdasarkan pada suatu draf akademik. Ditekankan pula agar regulasi itu mengakomodasi hukum-hukum adat dan kearifan lokal yang ada di masyarakat.

Rekomendasi lainnya dari lokakarya tersebut adalah agar pembayaran jasa lingkungan dipahami sebagai biaya kelola lingkungan dan kelola sosial sehingga merupakan biaya produksi jasa lingkungan itu sendiri. Perlu ada kelembagaan tersendiri untuk pembayaran jasa lingkungan, termasuk lembaga keuangannya.

Untuk mendukung jalannya rekomendasi tersebut, dibentuk community of interest (komunitas dengan kepentingan yang sama) dengan dimotori sembilan orang dari peserta lokakarya. Mereka akan menyusun mekanisme komunikasi, merancang garis besar kegiatan, dan membentuk gugus tugas (working groups).

Model DAS CidanauDalam lokakarya itu, lembaga swadaya masyarakat Rekonvasi Bhumi memaparkan model pembayaran jasa lingkungan di DAS Cidanau. Mekanisme pembayarannya dirancang untuk mengontrol dan mengatasi penebangan hutan (deforestasi).
Mekanisme pembayaran jasa lingkungan DAS Cidanau melibatkan Forum Komunikasi DAS Cidanau (FKDC), yang mempertemukan masyarakat yang tinggal di hulu sungai sebagai "penjual" dengan PT Krakatau Tirta Industri (KTI) sebagai "pembeli".

FKDC melakukan negosiasi dengan PT KTI untuk pembayaran jasa lingkungan, kemudian hasilnya dituangkan dalam naskah kesepahaman dan perjanjian pembayaran jasa lingkungan antara FKDC dan PT KTI. Forum itu juga mendiskusikan mekanisme pembayaran jasa lingkungan dengan masyarakat pemilik hutan di hulu DAS Cidanau.Hasilnya, PT KTI setuju membayar jasa lingkungan secara sukarela (voluntary) selama lima tahun. Dua tahun pertama, PT KTI bersedia membayar Rp 175 juta per tahun. Adapun untuk tiga tahun berikutnya, akan dinegosiasikan kemudian antara PT KTI dan FKDC.Masyarakat di lokasi model akan menerima pembayaran jasa lingkungan sebesar Rp 1,2 juta per hektar per tahun selama lima tahun.

Ketentuannya, lahan masyarakat yang berhak menerima pembayaran jasa lingkungan memiliki jumlah tanaman tidak kurang dari 500 batang pohon pada tahun pertama. Selanjutnya, masyarakat akan menerima pembayaran jasa lingkungan minimal Rp 2,5 juta per hektar per tahun dengan jumlah tanaman tidak kurang dari 200 batang pada akhir tahun kelima.

Sementara itu, Herman Rosa dari Programa Salvadoreño de Investigación Sobre Desarrollo Medio Ambiente memaparkan beberapa contoh kasus kompensasi jasa lingkungan di negara-negara Amerika. Kosta Rica, misalnya, sudah lebih maju karena pembayaran jasa lingkungan diatur berdasarkan regulasi oleh negara, antara lain melalui pajak.
Lombok Barat

Sementara itu, Kepala Dinas Kehutanan dan Perkebunan Kabupaten Lombok Barat H Suhayatman Sutamin mengemukakan bahwa konsep pengembangan jasa lingkungan di wilayahnya sudah sampai pada tahap penyamaan persepsi pada tingkat pengambil kebijakan.

Menurut dia, telah terbentuk tim kecil dan penyusun rancangan perda pemanfaatan jasa lingkungan dengan melibatkan unsur-unsur dari lembaga yang memiliki komitmen, seperti WWF Nusa Tenggara, Balai Taman Nasional Gunung Rinjani, Balai Konservasi Sumber Daya Alam, Dinas Kelautan dan Perikanan, Dinas Pariwisata, serta jajaran pemerintah daerah dan legislatif. (LAM)

Wednesday, March 23, 2005

Population - A global challenge for the twenty-first century

Resumed from: Pages 126-148 in Hans van Ginkel, Brendan Barrett, Julius Court, and Jerry Velasquez, eds., Human Development and the Environment. Challenges for the United Nations in the New Millennium. New York: United Nations University Press.


Since population deals with birth and death, sex and marriage, with gender roles, with intergenerational relations and interregional migration, it tend to be touching upon foundations of culture, religion, and national identity. The history of global population growth shown that the rapid increases in life expectancy were mostly due to falling child mortality rates. This factor combined with fertility rates that remained high led to soaring population growth rates in the many parts.

Trends in fertility and mortality resulted in different patterns of population growth in different parts of the world. The dominant feature of the global demographic landscape has been contrast between "the well off populations" in NDCs and the poorer populations in the LDCs. As an example in Africa the population pyramid is typical of a rapidly growing population, showing larger and larger cohorts at the bottom in the young age group. Contrary in Western Europe, which the pyramid is narrower at the bottom, due to the very low levels of fertility since the 1970s. At the same time, declining mortality rates have increased the size of older age cohorts. The narrowing of population pyramid at the bottom and widening at the top is called "population ageing".

The conventional theory of demographic transition predict that as living standards rise and health conditions improve, first mortality rate decline and then, somewhat later, fertility rates decline. There are two different ways to explain demographic transition. First, "Homeostasis argument" stresses that societies tend to seek equilibrium between birth and death. The other view assumes that modernization of society acts as a joint driving force for declining mortality and fertility. The biggest difference between the demographic transition processes in MDCs and LDCs has been the speed of mortality decline, which in MDCs its come about over the course of two centuries as a result of reduced variability in the food supply, better housing, improved sanitation, and progress in preventive and curative medicine. Three preconditions for a lasting fertility decline suggest tree parallel strategies to foster the transition from high to low fertility:
  1. Emphasize universal basic education to bring fertility increasingly into the realm of conscious choice,
  2. Pursue changes in socio-economic variables,
  3. Invest in reproductive health and the availability of family planning services.

A synergism between the various factors, the national family planning programs, combined with socio-economic development and empowerment of women, result in fertility decline.

For population projection, assumptions about future variance in the distributions of the three components have traditionally been based on time series analysis or ex-post analysis of projection errors. For the IIASA Projection chose an approach that is more intensively based on expert judgment. The procedure fits normal distributions to the three values (high, central and low). Results were derived through a set of 4.000 simulations that randomly combined fertility, mortality and migration path from the tree normal distributions from 13 world regions. Three near certainties emerge from the range of scenarios and the probabilistic projections in the coming decades are:

  1. World population will increase substantially from its current level (even in the extreme lowest growth scenario). A further doubling of world population has become unlikely.
  2. The distributions of world populations will continue to shit towards LDCs.
  3. The world population will continue to the age.

Human beings exploit natural resources through their consumption of good and services. Pollution, including emissions of CO2 and other greenhouse gases and services, resulting from production of good and services gives rise to residuals. Climate change and population growth is among a select group of issue that will have global implications for generations to come. The impact of population independent of possible feedback effect on other relevant variable called the direct effects of populations growth on the environment. Referring to ambiguities and dispute regarding the nature of indirect effect, also should be the focus of attentions. An encapsulation of research arrived at particularly strong conclusions:

  1. The relationship between population and per capita income is ambiguous. Two opposing view, one that demographic growth mire population in poverty and the second that the demographic growth stimulate improvement in technology and organizations.
  2. Population growth increases the share of productions accounted for by agriculture and the proportion of the land base devote to food productions. In this sense, demographic increase has the effect of concentrating output into a heavily polluting sector.
  3. Most deforestation in mid latitude tropical forest occurs in a limited number of hot spot and can be traced ultimately to expansion of agriculture. Largely because of the link to agriculture, it has long been recognize that rapid population growth is correlated with rapid lost of Forest cover.

In addition to direct and indirect effect, there is a family of impact which might be called induced effect: changes in the ways social institutions cope with ecological stress, including changes in the institutions themselves, as a result of shifts in demographic regimes. Nevertheless, the kinds of population policies most in favor are probably "win-win" from the point of view of climate change.

People in Ecosystem

This article reviews the ecosystem concept and introduces the distinction between adaptation and adjustment. The integration of social and biological approach to the study of adaptability was facilitate by acceptance of the ecosystem concept that derived from the study of biological ecology, views all organism as part of ecological system and subject to the same physical laws. Some concepts of ecosystem (Human ecology) are discusses.

The ecosystem, is a fundamental ecological unit that refers to associated species of living organism in a nonliving physical environment and to the structural and functional relationship among them. For proposes of study, ecosystem is subdivided into the tree components that structure it: energy, matter and information. Energy flows into ecosystem and its converted into vegetal biomass. Chemical energy makes possible the conversion of matter from organic to inorganic form and the cycle of essential nutrients in ecosystem. Information make possible control over rate of flow, change in ecosystem structure and function, and overall adaptability to both internal and external conditions.

Study of Human adaptability focuses on how human populations in interacting with each other and their environments attempt to accommodate themselves to these very specific environmental problems. Adaptations result from exposure to physical and chemical factor in the environment, from interaction with other species, and from the interaction of individuals within the same species. Individuals respond to changes in their environment by morphological and functional adjustment.

How energy is stored and performs work are described by Laws of thermodynamics which sates, (1) The energy is neither created nor destroyed, It may change form, one place to the another, or be degraded into less usable forms (2) Part of energy involved in doing work is lost as heat to the surrounding environment. Thus, there is a constant degradation of energy. This leads to an increase in entropy in ecological system. While energy flows continually in and out of systems, matter essentially cycles form one state to another. The cycles of materials on the earth involve pathways that take elements from organic to inorganic forms and back again. There has been a tendency to speak of cycle mater as closed cycles.

How information flows and is transformed is of interest to analysis of how matter and energy are transformed and work achieved. On perception of human organization of information, there is sensory reception of signals and symbols, some of which are ignored and some of which are received, depending upon the sensory quality of the information and its fit with current logical structures that result from linguistic and cultural categorization. The filed of semiotic has developed in recent years as an interdisciplinary attempt to deal with the complex phenomena of message exchanges and communication systems, It deals with interrelations among social, culture, and environmental variables.

The process of globalization has the potential of threatening human ecosystem in ways and at scales not currently imaginable. The impact of global media, international flows of labor, the spread of infectious diseases and global economy are transforming concept of community, culture and society. Ecosystems have always experienced change and disturbance, but the rates and magnitude at local, regional, and global scale have grown in recent years.

Global Food Security for Tomorrow

Resumed from: Swaminathan, M.S. Global Food Security for Tomorrow. UNU. Tokyo: , Volume (2000)


Food security is terminology for the availability and an economic access to food and the biological absorption of food in the body of one region. The green revolution has so far helped to keep the rate of growth in food production above the population growth rate. It will be appropriate to refer to the emerging scientific progress on farms as an "ever-green revolution", to emphasize that the productivity advanced is sustainable over time since it rooted in the principles of ecology, economic, social and gender equity, and employment generation. In the near future we will face several new problems as:
  1. An increasing population lead to increase demand for food and reduce per capita availability of arable land and irrigation water.
  2. Improved purchasing power and increased urbanization leads to higher per capita food grain requirements due to increase consumption of animal products.
  3. Marine fish production is tending to become stagnant and coastal aquaculture is facing environmental problem.
  4. There is increasing damage to the ecological foundations of agriculture.
  5. While dramatic new technological are taking place, particularly in the field of biotechnology, their environmental, health, and social implications are yet to be fully understood.
Emerging farming technologies will be based on precision farming methods leading to plant-scale rather than field-scale husbandry. GIS, GPS, also information and computer technologies urgently needed for future farming system. Biotechnology also has to play an increasingly important role in strengthening food, water and health security system. The gene revolution, the ecotechnology revolution and the information and communication revolution will influence agriculture and industry in a fundamental manner.

On the Gene revolution, several large corporations in Europe and USA have made major investment in adapting these technologies to produce new plant varieties of importance for large-scale commercial agriculture. The same technologies have equal important potential application for addressing food security in the developing countries. The key technological developments in this area are genomics, bioinformatics, transformation, molecular breeding, diagnostics, and vaccine technology. In order to take advantage of recombinant DNA technologies (transgenic) without associated harm to human or ecological health it is important to have suitable institutional structure and regulations for biosafety, bioethic, and biosurveillance in each country.

The new development have opened up new opportunities for developing technologies that can lead to higher productivity without adverse impact on natural resources base. Blending traditional and frontier technologies lead to the birth of echtechnologies with combined strength in economics, ecology, social and gender equity, employment generation and energy conservation. The promotion of ecotechnology development and dissemination, the effective adoption of integrated system of gene, and natural resources management, and the effectiveness harnessing of information technologies should become essential element of the science and technology for basic human needs movement.

New Direction in Environmental Anthropology

Human dimensions research addresses the working of social systems that manage environmental resources, market, property right regimes, treatises, legal and informal norms, and so forth, and potential to modify those institutions through policy and thus to mitigate global change or increase adaptive capability. Key research priorities for the first decades of the twenty-first century are:
  1. Understanding the social determinants of environmentally significant consumption.
  2. Understanding the sources of technological change.
  3. Making climate prediction more regionally relevant and accurate.
  4. Improving how human populations can better respond to environmental surprises.
  5. Understanding the conditions favoring institutional success or failure in resource management.
  6. Linking land-use and land cover dynamics to population processes, especially the role of human migration.
  7. Advancing capacity to make social science data spatially explicit.
    There is a need to engage all of the social sciences in multidisciplinary research, jointly with each other and with the biophysical sciences. In this enterprise, anthropologist bring to the analysis of global change two main contribution: first, anthropologist are committed to understanding local differences and, second important contribution is related to data collection and methods.
Archeologists have taken advantage of remote sensing as a useful tool in their survey. Satellite remote sensing is an area of growing interest among environmental anthropologist. Analysis of land use intensification is one of the most promising topics addressed by anthropologist using remote sensing and GIS tools. However the differences of the term "large scale" in cartograpy and term of anthropologist still there is. It is important to develop research method that are explicitly multiscale and that are capable of nesting data and sampling strategy in such a way that scaling up or down is feasible and integral to the research strategy. The study of global change requires consideration of multiple levels of analysis and appropriately scaled methods and variables. The integration, high resolution satellite data with local data on economy, management, land-use-history, and site-specific vegetation/soil inventories aims to make it possible to understand ecological and social dimension of land use at local scale and link them to regional and global scales of land use.

Data collection at farm/household level can include a variety of internal and external aspects of this unit of analysis. It is important to collected demographic data on household composition to construct a demographic profile of this population and data related to subsistence economy. It is fundamental for the analysis of land use to understand resource use, economic strategies, market relationship, labor arrangements, and time allocation in productive and nonproductive activities. At this level, it is important to cover the basic dimensions of social organization, such as settlement pattern, labor distribution, resource use, and kinship. Georeferencing the household, farm boundaries, agriculture, and fallow field may be achieved through the use of Global Positioning System (GSP) devices. These are small units that permit precise location of any point on the planet to within a few meters. Mapping of vegetation has implications for understanding the impact of land-use practice on land cover. Also in general, vegetation structure, including height, ground cover, basal area, density of plant individuals, diameter of breast height (DBH), and floristic composition are important data. Those data can be linked to the image's spectral data. This kind of ethnoecological knowledge is very much site specific, or local, knowledge that does not extrapolate well to landscape, regional, or global analysis. Ethnoecological interviews also can elucidate many soil characteristics.

The landscape and regional level analysis provides a more aggregate picture of management practices and driving forces shaping a particular land use/cover at sub-regional scale. This level integrates information from vegetation class, soil, and farm/household levels. Satellite data are today the most important data sources for analysis at this level. The method of digital analysis of satellite images divided in four parts: preprocessing, spectral analysis, classification, and post processing. In this case, the use of a GSP device is necessary to provide reliable ground-truth information. Both social and physical aspects of the world system had to be coupled in so-called integrated assessment models. IMAGE 2 was the first global integrated model with geographic resolution. It is composed of three fully linked systems of models; the energy-industry system, the terrestrial environment system, and the atmosphere-ocean system.

Scientist interest in urban ecology as a part of general ecology has been present since the early part of the 1900s but is much less well developed as a field of study. Many problem impacts from rapid cites development in the last twenty years makes this field is important. Water and air pollution problems, heat-island effects, resources extraction and change in hydrology were impact of urban expansion.  In recent years the direction of environmental anthropology there has been spread to be wider as a field of study. The common property resources and the study of institutions, political economy and human adaptability analysis is engage with this field. Lately, experimental approaches also introduce as a complement to other approaches usable in the field.

Prospect for Accelerating Human Development in The twenty-first Century

Recently, in the beginning of the new century the wide disparities of welfare in the world increasingly clear. Average life expectancy in the most advanced country is twice that of the least developed country (LDC). Ninety-tree per cent of the global burden of disease is connected in low and middle-income countries, but 90% of resources allocated to health are spent on 10% of the world population-the wealthy part. It is also clear that any development progress in all regions is fragile and can be reversed. Some regions have lost the momentum for achieving poverty reduction goals, and number of poor people in most developing nations is raising.

Globalization can facilitate the unleashing of our combined efforts and expertise to reach global solutions. The goal would be bring more and more people into the economic mainstream, to reduce the disparities across and within countries, and to promote equitable access to the benefits of development. Public actions that could help achieve the goals are:
  1. For development to be sustainable, human development and economic growth both should be accelerated in tandem. Market must therefore be supplemented with investment in human capital at four levels. First, countries need complete the unfinished agenda of the twentieth century in order to build secure foundations for growth and development. Second, countries simultaneously to address agenda in order to become competitive participant in a global economy. Third, the poor need to be active participants in the design and implementation of development program. Fourth, action must be rooted in processes that are socially inclusive and responsive to changing circumstances.
  2. More needs to be done to enable weak economies to participate in the global economy. The international community should work flexibly to reduce barriers to fair competition in the global economy.
  3. The need to recognize more clearly the interdependence of nation. Many long-standing problems have taken on international dimensions and no one country can solve them alone.
  4. There is need for greater cooperation between all sector. The foregoing demonstrates the importance of developing strategic alliances and linkages with all stakeholders.
  5. Countries need integrated policy packages and institutional environments that foster transparency and accountability, reward hard work and creativity, and facilitate participation.
  6. The need for much greater commitment to the international development goals, which are:
    a. A reduction by half in the proportion of people living in extreme poverty by 2015.
    b. Universal primary education in all countries by 2015.
    c. Demonstrated progress toward gender equity and empowerment of women.
    d. Better for mortality rate for infants and children, and maternal mortality.
    e. Access through the primary health care system to reproductive health services for all individuals of appropriate ages.
    f. The implementation of national strategies for sustainable development in all countries.
  7. The needs to leverage better the power of modern research and information technology. Developing country need financial and technical assistance to support economic reform efforts, investment in growth and expand access and quality.
  8. The overall responsibilities and accountability for reduction and human development rests with the impoverished countries themselves. Strong political and intellectual leadership is a necessary condition for effectively utilizing international support.

Rural Recreation and Tourism Development in Indonesia

This paper discusses rural tourism development in Indonesia and its impact on rural communities. The impact on rural communities is discussed, and the importance of rural tourism in providing new employment opportunities and markets for rural people.

Introduction


Indonesia is a great and beautiful country; it is the largest archipelago in the world, consisting of some 17.508 islands with 210 million of populations and 500 races. The result of mighty volcanic eruptions, Indonesia is blessed with fertile soils, which produce incredibly lush tropical landscapes. The terrain of the land ranges from lush tropical rain forests to snow covered mountain, pristine beaches and shrub land. This country offers such variety of culture, people, and landscape. The country has followers of every major world religion, ranging from Islam in Sumatra and Java, Catholic and protestant in some part of Moluccas, Papua and Celebes, to the ancient Hindu beliefs of Balinese.

Tourism has become one of the leading sectors in Indonesia non-oil export for many years. Besides, the sector has also contributed to the local economy in many regions through the expenditure of its national domestic tourists. Tourism is seen as a vehicle for national and regional development as well as improvement of the well being of the locals, not an end or for its own sake of tourism development. In 1997, more than six million tourists visited Indonesia. Unfortunately the unstable political situation in Indonesia, since 1998, had a greater impact to number of tourists visit. Government Data showed the number of tourist visit Indonesia in 1998 is only 4.4 million and number stabile in 1999, but in the year 2000 until October 2000, Indonesia only can reach 3.1 million tourists. It is expect to the recovery since political situation more conducive in the countryside recently.

In terms of new destinations, Indonesia will go beyond Bali, which has been known as tourism region. It is expected that Bali can become a means for promoting other destinations, and that tourism will help in developing unique and beautiful places with fewer resources for industries other than tourism. Tourism development in general and rural tourism as well as ecotourism in particular is expected to become a model for small and medium scale business enhancement and a model for sustainable development in that area.
Rural and Eco-tourism in Indonesia

Agriculture sector, which especially located in rural area, it plays an important role in providing a food supply for Indonesia's massive population and raw materials for the industrial sector. Increasingly, it is also becoming a potential source of foreign exchange from the Rural Recreation and Tourism Development. Rural tourism can be expected to play an important role in the growth of both agriculture and tourism simultaneously.
Currently, most rural tourism projects are found in the plantation areas of Java and Sumatra. Existing rural tourism projects (called OWA or "Obyek Wisata Agro" in Indonesia), have been mainly developed by state enterprises, but some of private sector also developed rural tourism area which especially located in Java and Bali. Some examples are the rural tourism projects in Gunung Mas, Malabar, Wonosari and Kedaung.

One location with an excellent view is called "Margo Utomo". It is located in Kalibaru village in East Java, and was established in 1976. It lies 480 m above sea level, in an area with an average annual rainfall of 1,550 mm. It can be reached either by train or by public bus. Of the tourists who visit this area, around one third (30%) are Indonesian and the rest are from overseas (mainly from the Netherlands, Belgium, Germany, Switzerland, Britain, Australia, America and Canada). In 1990, there were 6,495 overnight stays in the village. This number rose steadily to reach 16,587 in 1997. Rural tourism in Kalibaru employs about 100 people, most of them local villagers. Rural tourism thus provides a good opportunity to create new jobs and increase rural incomes. Margo Utomo has two hotels, one with 52 rooms, the other providing cottages with a total of 30 rooms. Both types of accommodation have warm water, fans, and access to a swimming pool and a dining hall. Among the activities offered are:

  1. Visiting plantations to see the production and processing of coffee, rubber or cocoa, or seeing tobacco fields and cigar production based on a traditional or modern system.
  2. Jungle tours through the mountains, involving a three-hour trek round a mountain, including a visit to a volcanic crater.
  3. Visits to a nature reserve and National Park with beautiful flora and fauna. Visitors can see various kinds of birds and animals in the wild, including wild buffalo and monkeys.
  4. Visits to an ocean beach where sea turtles lay their eggs at night.
  5. Trips around the village and adjacent farms in a horse-drawn carriage, to see farmers planting or harvesting rice, or giving a dramatic display of old-time piracy. They can also watch the manufacture of bricks, tiles and aluminum, all of which are traditional home industries.
  6. Floating in a rubber raft 13 km down the Kalibaru River.
  7. A modified lorry coordinates with train arrivals to take tourists (domestic or foreign) on a trip through two tunnels to enjoy scenic views from nearby Gumitir mountain.
  8. The village has an 8-ha garden in which many different spices and fruits are grown. Tourists can see coffee, coconut, banana, pepper, nutmeg, cloves, cinnamon, and vanilla growing, and also visit the dairy where cattle are milked and fed.

Ecotourism in Indonesia is in development stage. The idea behind ecotourism concept is bringing direct economic benefits to local people and contributing to the conservation of nature. Ecotourism is seen as a model for the integration of tourism and conservation purposes. A model for cost efficient development during this period "difficult time", a model for public as well as tourist educational means for being responsible to the environment and cultural heritage, a model for community empowerment, which all are indicators for sustainable development.
Destination like the Togeans in Central Celebes is among one of the best, in terms of the process of development where local people was directly involved from the very first beginning when the development consultant start with planning. The communities were empowered and involved and international tourists were coming in, even that the number is not many. A popular and prestigious destination like Bali was also developing ecotourism product to cater the changing demand of mainly international tourist.


Potential for ecotourism development in Indonesia mainly lies in its resources. Indonesia is known as country with mega-diversity. Besides its mega-diversity in biological resources, Indonesia also offers a diverse geography and geology to be explored. The caves are among another potential for ecotourism, not only as natural wonders but also of its historical remains inside. Diversity of culture, which includes ethnicity, religion, tradition and all other dimensions of culture are spices to the richness of natural resources.



Impact on Rural Economic Growth and The Constraint

Generally, Rural tourism can help to develop the rural economy, which will have a multiplier effect on rural society and improve rural incomes by:

  1. Providing employment for people in a village;
  2. Providing a new market for foods such eggs, meat, fruit, vegetables and rice, all of which can be produced by local farmers, and
  3. Supporting small businesses such as restaurants and art shops.

Not only will the economy of the village grow, but also the government will be able to collect many kinds of taxes. Farmers are most likely to benefit from tourism if they can directly provide tourists with services and products, whether these are accommodation, food, local specialties or a combination of the three. If tourists in rural areas stay in large resorts built by outside capital, with little interaction with local people, eating food imported from outside areas, the benefits they bring the local economy will be minimal. While the economic impact of rural tourism is not simple to evaluate, its development is most likely to benefit farmers if it is small-scale, dispersed, and supplier oriented rather than demand oriented.

Rural tourism cannot succeed without the participation of rural society. The aim should be to promote the rural tourism. Some problems facing in development of rural tourism especially in Indonesia are:

  1. Lack of management skills, lack of skills is also a problem among the local government staff responsible for planning and regulation of tourism. Most have little knowledge or experience of tourism development.
  2. Marketing, most rural tourism facilities tend to be small and widely scattered. This makes it difficult to market them to potential visitors, and makes it almost impossible for them to cater for the mass tourist industry.
  3. Infrastructure, many rural areas of outstanding natural beauty have a poor road or rail network, and are difficult to reach.
  4. Limited tourism season, Even more than cities, rural areas receive most of their tourists during the height of the season. This limits the number of days in which tourist accommodation and other facilities are used, and reduces the return on investment.
  5. Poor return on investment, Returns on capital invested in rural tourism tend to be fairly low. They are nearly always lower than the returns from other kinds of commercial enterprises.
  6. Farmers lack information about what visitors want, Farmers who provide accommodation for tourists, are dealing with people who have a different life style from their own, and an unfamiliar set of preferences and values.

Rural Industrialization

Resumed from: The Geography of Rural Change, part 3 by David North page. 161-188

The dramatic change in the location of manufacturing industries at the global scale occurred in the past quarter century from the older industrial economies toward Japan and Pacific Rim countries. UK along with other developed economies, has become more and more dependent upon service sector rather than manufacturing. This is the trend away from the mass production of standardized product toward more flexible production system, often known as the shift from fordism to neo fordism (or post fordism). Increased flexibility in the use of labor, is another characteristic of the shift toward neo fordism production methods. Given the radical nature of these changes in the organization of production, it is hardly surprising they also have profound implication for the location of manufacturing activities. Any interpretation of rural industrialization should be set within the context of these broader-level changes.

Some plausible explanation have been proposed to explain the urban-rural shift in manufacturing employment as the following:
  1. The constrained location hypothesis, this is focus on the industrial space needs of firm and the abilities of both urban and rural location to meet them.
  2. The production cost hypothesis, have analyzed the urban-rural shift in terms of spatial variations in production cost, especially wage costs and land/property costs.
  3. The filter down hypothesis, This theory argued that in the early and innovative stage of the production life cycle, urban locations will be favored because they are capable of providing the skilled labor force, scientific and engineering know-how, and business support services which are needed.
  4. The capital restructuring hypothesis, This approach emphasize the importance of the labor factor in the location of production and the spatial differentiation of labor, as capital develops its capability of locating more freely with respect to most commodity sources and market.
  5. The residential preference hypothesis, this explanation focuses more on entrepreneurial behavior and the role of qualitative influence on the business location decision.

These are the principal explanations that have been put forward for the urban-rural shift, but other factors may be recognized in different contexts, including aspect of government policy.

Empirical evidence of the development of productivisit agriculture in the European Union and The United States

As the dimensions of productivist Agricultural such as Intensification, Concentration and Specialization when taken together have produced an industrialization of agriculture. Intensification can be measured either by increased farm input or farm output per hectare of agriculture land. Concentration in agriculture describes the increasing proportion of total productive resources or farm production located in a smaller number of census units, such as parishes or counties. Specialization in agriculture is based on the economics of scale that can be gained by limiting production to a few products in a farm business, thus specialization can be observed in the functions of the labor force, the types of farm equipment employed, and the resulting land use. When aggregated for groups of farms, increasingly specialized and differentiated agricultural regions can be identified.

Reference to the increasing importance of the commodity chain and the agrofood complex, here three type of external capital has become particularly important: agro-food companies, food retailers and the financial services sector. The damaging environmental effects of modern agriculture can be understood as the outcome of manipulating agro-ecosystems for financial gain. The most important one of change to occur during the productivist era was the increased pressure to the farmers to alter their behavior towards the natural environments. The term external cost implies the consequences of the damage caused to the environment by the farm sector are met by society at large.

State intervention in agriculture has increasingly determined the economic context for agricultural production and a useful analytical structure is providing by the following linked sequence: agricultural policy goals, policy instruments and policy impacts. On agriculture policy goals a distinction can be drawn between utility and equity goals: utility goals concern the contributions by the farm sector towards the performance of the economy; equity goals focus on the provision of satisfactory incomes for the farm populations. The policy goals can be classified into four main groups: instrument to increasing demand, instrument to reduce supply, instrument to raise farm income by reducing production costs and, instrument to conserve the natural environment.

Studies on the political impacts of state intervention have tends to emphasize three features:
1. Most policy mechanism influence the general economic environment for agricultural within which farmers make decisions about what to produce and in what quantity. Thus the state can increasing or decreases the element of risk in farmer decision making.
2. The state can encourage farmers to change their productions and farming practices in preferred directions by offering specific financials inducements.
3. The state can legislate on specific regulations that dictate farmer behavior, such as production quota and set-aside.

Agri- Environmental Policy Development and Change

The modernization and intensification of farming in the same time needed concern on conservation of nature including management of rural land and agricultural policy support. Approaching in rural land-use management that combines strict control over urban development to safeguard productive agricultural land with an expansionist farm support policy bereft of any environmental safeguard.

Throughout western Europe the intensification and growing specialization of farming has operated on an a number of levels, fragmenting and simplifying many farmed landscape through the removal of hedgerows, tree, small woods, ponds and the reclamation of wetland and unimproved grassland. From a nature conservation perspective, this and other symptoms of change meant a substantial reduction in the biodiversity of agriculture land and the increasing ecological isolation of the nature reserves and other key sites which remained. In The United States researcher at resources was accumulating evidence for the future suggesting that offsite damage resulting from the sedimentation of watercourses and from pollution far outstripped those direct on-farm costs due to a loss in soil productivity.

Programs for resources conservation formulated earlier in the century by progressives like Theodore Roosevelt and Giford Pinchot. They began with the creation of the soil conservation service in 1935.  For the next 30 years British nature conservationist would devote much of their resources and expertise to creating a conservation estate made up of national nature reserves and sites of special scientific interest, they would show little inclination to influence the course of change in the wider countryside.

Recently in some Europe country and US Agri-environmental policy had become a permanent feature of the agricultural policy scene. The greening of agricultural policy reflects a profound public reassessment of farmer and the relationship between agriculture and the environment. Rather than resort to government regulation and control, however, the approach followed has been to subsidize farmers so they can better fulfil their stewardship obligations.

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